Netgear router update

If you use a Netgear router for your home network, please log on to your router and use the upgrade feature to apply an important security update. That feature is probably located under the Advanced and/or Administration sections of the router’s web-based menus.

This update addresses several vulnerabilities, some of which are remotely exploitable. The linked page indicates which vulnerabilities affect which routers, and I found that my router was affected by one of the vulnerabilities.

If a character in a story you’re writing needed to exploit this kind of thing against a target, it’s not a great stretch of the imagination. If your character emailed her target an email with a link to a web page she controls, and if the target clicked the link while on a computer at home, she’d have the target’s IP address (she could get that from looking at server logs). Once she knew the target’s IP address, she could interrogate the address herself with readily-available network tools, or she could use something like shodan to try to identify the kind of router her target uses. If the target has remote administration enabled (which may be a default settings in some router models), she could use publicized vulnerabilities like the ones linked above to break into her target’s home network.

You should probably run updates on your home router even if it isn’t made by Netgear.

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Flash Player Zero-Day

A zero-day vulnerability is a software defect that doesn’t yet have a patch from the vendor. One of these currently exists for Adobe Flash Player, and it is being actively targeted by a working exploit. This particular defect (CVE-2018-4878) is a use-after-free vulnerability which allows remote code execution. This means that Flash Player tries to read instructions from a memory address that is no longer valid, and that the exploit is able to put malicious code at that memory address, causing Flash Player to execute the malicious code introduced by the exploit.

South Korean security researchers say that North Korea developed this exploit and have embedded it in Microsoft Word documents in an effort to attack South Koreans doing security research on North Korea, and that this has been going on for two or three months.

This zero-day started making news on 1 February, and Adobe says it’ll release a patch the week of 5 February. As in this case, it can take the vendor a while to address a defect like this. So if your character needs to compromise someone’s computer, she might search Dark Web forums for a recent zero-day like this and send it to her target in a phishing email, especially if she knows that her target is not diligent about keeping their computer up-to-date.

And if you use Flash Player, make sure you apply the patch when Adobe releases it. Version 28.0.0.137 is the affected version.

Equifax breach

The data breach at credit bureau Equifax has gotten a lot of attention in the last week. It seems that the company has been guilty of at least two significant blunders: unpatched software and default authentication credentials.

Unpatched software

Equifax has at least one web application built on Apache Struts, a category of software called a web application framework. Web developers use frameworks to build their applications, because the frameworks provide components common to many web applications, components that do things like handling input typed into a web form, generating HTML for web pages, etc. Frameworks allow web developers to skip over routine tasks and focus on the business logic specific to the application.

Like any software, frameworks have versions and updates. Equifax was using a version of Struts that had at least one serious and widely-known security vulnerability. When the Struts developers (not Equifax, but the people who make the Struts framework) became aware of the vulnerability, they released an update to the Struts framework. The Struts developers released this update months prior to the Equifax data breach. For whatever reason, Equifax didn’t update Struts on their site.

Default authentication credentials

Equifax hosts a web application that their Argentinian employees use to manage credit report data. That web application had a poor choice of authentication credentials: the username was admin, and the password was also admin. Logging in with those credentials allowed an attacker to retrieve the usernames and passwords of Equifax employees, which would in turn allow the attacker to retrieve Equifax customer information.

How does this happen?

Why didn’t Equifax apply the Struts update? A few possibilities come to mind:

  1. The didn’t know about the update. Equifax must have developers, system administrators, and security analysts. Maybe they were all blissfully ignorant of the update for over four months.
  2. Maybe the update was incompatible with the web application they built on the Struts framework. If that were the case, they should have identified and fixed the problem and then run the update. That might take days, but it shouldn’t take months.
  3. They probably have change control processes that delay an update. They wouldn’t immediately run the update on their live production servers. First they’d load it in a test environment, and then they’d test their application after applying the Struts update. But that should take at most days, and probably hours, especially with an update that addresses serious security vulnerabilities.

None of these is an excuse for waiting months to run the update, and there’s really no defending the admin/admin thing at all.

What this might mean to you

Brian Krebs has been a long-time advocate for security freezes, and I’m considering doing this. The only reason I haven’t done this yet is that it just seems like one more pain in the ass when my day job, the current political climate, and other stuff leave me wanting to do little more than read a book or sit in front of the TV binge-watching The Flash and Supergirl (which is why I haven’t been posting on this blog much lately).

The implications of the Equifax breach to a story-teller are obvious enough. If your character needs to break into a web site or computer network, she should look for out-of-date software or default authentication credentials. This sort of thing isn’t supposed to happen to a big company that should know better about how to protect the personal information of millions of people. But it does happen, which can make it a plausible plot device in your fiction. I see that nmap has a test to look specifically for the Struts vulnerability found on the Equifax site, and there are plenty of open-source tools to run brute-force password attacks.

The implications of the breach on a computer user are obvious, too. This is why it’s so important to run software updates on everything. Criminals are well aware of security vulnerabilities and are actively exploiting them. We all need to be running updates:

1. operating system and application software updates on our computers and mobile devices

2. firmware updates on the routers we use for our broadband internet connections

3. updates to self-hosted blogging software like wordpress (plugins, too)

And we need to be picking good passwords for everything. Did you ever change the password on your broadband router? Does “facebook” appear in your facebook password?

CrashPlan discontinuing home plans

I’ve used Crashplan as an offsite backup solution for several years and have really liked it. Today the company announced that they are transitioning to being an enterprise-only solution, and that they are ending support for personal and family plans.

This is pretty disappointing. It’s been a good product at an affordable price, and now I have to find something else. The company is going about this in a nice way: they’re giving their users 14 months’ notice. I’ll post about this again when I figure out what I’m going to do. And I’m certainly open to suggestions.

July 2016 updates from Apple

Apple has recently released updates to many of its products. These updates address problems that are believed to be remotely exploitable, so it’s time to run updates on your Macs, iPhones, iPads, and everything else with an Apple logo. Here are the security bulletins for OS X and iOS, but there are also updates for iTunes, Safari, Apple watch, and others.